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Definitions
Definitions are things that you have given a name to: constants, and functions. Derw calls constants const. Each definition of is composed of two parts: a type line, specifying the type of the definition, and the body, specifying the value it should have.

Consts

A constant is simply a value that does not change.
name: string
name =
"Noah"

Functions

A function takes arguments to produce a value.
sayHi: string -> string
sayHi name =
if name == "noah" then
"Hi Noah"
else
"I don't know you"

Lambdas

Lambdas (or anonoymous functions) are functions without a name. You'd typically want to use them for making small functions that you pass to another function, like List.map.
incrementAges: List number -> List number
incrementAges ages =
List.map (\age -> age + 1) ages

Definitions within definitions

Sometimes, you'll want to define a function or a const inside another. This is particularly useful when you have a helper function that you wish to use with a set of arguments from the parent function. These can be done via let..in. let..in are converted to local variables within the parent code, so you don't need to worry about naming collisions. You can also use let..in in if and case branches.

In a function

viewPerson: Person -> HtmlNode Msg
viewPerson person =
let
viewName: HtmlNode Msg
viewName =
text person.name
in
div [] [] [ viewName ]

In a const

doubledX: number
doubledX =
let
x: number
x = 5
in
x + x
​

Kernel code

Consts

Consts simply become TypeScript consts
const name: string = "Noah";

Functions

Functions become TypeScript functions. All functions must have a return value
function sayHi(name: string): string {
if (name === "noah") {
return "Hi Noah";
} else {
return "I don't know you";
}
}

Lambdas

Lambdas are turned into anonymous functions in TypeScript, with each argument being marked as any.
function incrementAges(ages: number[]): number[] {
return List.map(function(age: any) {
return age + 1;
}, ages);
}
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Consts
Functions
Lambdas
Definitions within definitions
In a function
In a const
Kernel code
Consts
Functions
Lambdas